OBJECTIVES: Alprazolam, a high-potency and short-acting anxiolytic benzodiazepine, is one of the most misused benzodiazepines in France. In the context of various reports on alprazolam misuse during the COVID-19 pandemic, the objective of this study was to assess alprazolam abuse potential by analyzing French addictovigilance and international data.
METHODS: Data collected from 2011 to 2020 using the following epidemiological tools of the French Addictovigilance Network were analyzed: spontaneous reports (SRs), OPPIDUM (addiction care center data), OSIAP (falsified prescriptions), DRAMES (substance-related deaths), and chemical submission surveys. Moreover, the VigiBase database was analyzed to evaluate alprazolam abuse liability worldwide.
RESULTS: During the study period, 675 SRs concerning alprazolam misuse were recorded (sex ratio: ̴1; median age: 39 years). The desired effects were intensification of the therapeutic anxiolytic effect, euphoric effect, and management of substance withdrawal. Alprazolam was the third and first benzodiazepine listed in OPPIDUM and OSIAP surveys. Analysis of the SR and OPPIDUM data showed a recent increase in the alprazolam-opioid combination. In DRAMES data, alprazolam was directly linked to 11 deaths (associated with opioids in 10/11). VigiBase data analysis highlighted that France was the third country with the most cases of alprazolam misuse.
The disproportionality analysis showed that in France, alprazolam was associated with higher risk of misuse and dependence compared with other benzodiazepines: reporting odds ratio=1.43, (95% CI: 1.04-1.95) and=1.97 (95% CI:1.50-2.59), respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: This study highlighted an increase in various signals of alprazolam abuse in France, and an increased use of the alprazolam-opioid combination that was also linked to most of the recorded alprazolam-linked deaths. These signals have been reported also in the international literature, and should be thoroughly investigated.
|投稿者||Diaz, Laurine; Eiden, Celine; Jouanjus, Emilie; Frauger, Elisabeth; Fouilhe, Nathalie; Djezzar, Samira; Gibaja, Valerie; Boucher, Alexandra; Le Boisselier, Reynald; Libert, Frederic; Caous, Anne-Sylvie; Monzon, Emilie; Guerlais, Marylene; Daveluy, Amelie; Fauconneau, Bernard; Peyriere, Helene|
|組織名||Addictovigilance Centre, Lapeyronie Hospital, CHU de Montpellier, Univ;Montpellier, 34000 Montpellier, France.;Addictovigilance Centre, Medecine Faculty, CHU, 31000 Toulouse, France.;Addictovigilance Centre, CHU Timone, 13000 Marseille, France.;Addictovigilance Centre, CHU, 38000 Grenoble, France.;Addictovigilance Centre, Fernand Widal Hospital, 75000 Paris, France.;Addictovigilance Centre-CHU Nancy, 54000 Nancy, France.;Addictovigilance Centre-CHU Lyon, 69000 Lyon, France.;Addictovigilance Centre-CHU Caen, 14000 Caen, France.;Addictovigilance Centre-CHU Clermont-Ferrand, 63000 Clermont-Ferrand, France.;Addictovigilance Centre-CHU Lille, 59000 Lille, France.;Agence Nationale de Securite des Medicaments et Produits de Sante (ANSM), 93210;Saint Denis La Plaine, France.;Addictovigilance Centre, CHU, 44000 Nantes, France.;Addictovigilance Centre-CHU Bordeaux, 33000 Bordeaux, France.;Addictovigilance Centre-CHU Poitiers, 86000 Poitiers, Francee.;Montpellier, 34000 Montpellier, France; Pathogenesis and Control of Chronic;Infections, Univ Montpellier, INSERM, EFS, CHU Montpellier, 34000 Montpellier,;France. Electronic address: email@example.com.|