beta-2 agonists as misusing Drugs? Assessment of both Clenbuterol- and Salbutamol-related European Medicines Agency (EMA) Pharmacovigilance Database Reports.
|アブストラクト||A recent years' increase in misusing levels of image- and performance- enhancing drugs (IPEDs) has been observed. Out of these drugs, beta-2 agonists have recently emerged for their potential of misuse, especially for slimming and bodybuilding purposes. To this perspective, clenbuterol ('the size zero pill') has been reported as being both popular and widely available from the illegal market. All clenbuterol and salbutamol misuse/abuse/dependence/withdrawal/overdose/off-label spontaneous reports (2006-2016) from the European Medicines Agency (EMA) EudraVigilance (EV) database were collected and analysed by age range, gender, concomitant therapies and source of information. From the EV database, 55 out of a total number of 920 'suspect' misuse/abuse/dependence/withdrawal/overdose/off-label ADRs (e.g. 5.97%; corresponding to 25 out of 138 individuals) and 1310 of 62879 ADRs (e.g. 2.08%; corresponding to 474 out of 6923 individuals) were, respectively, associated with clenbuterol (typically ingested in combination with a range of anabolic steroids) and salbutamol. Proportional reporting ratio (PRR) value for misuse/abuse ADRs were higher (PRR=18.38) for clenbuterol in comparison with salbutamol. Clenbuterol misuse/abuse could be a cause for major concern, especially in vulnerable individuals. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.|
|ジャーナル名||Basic & clinical pharmacology & toxicology|
|投稿者||Milano, Giulia; Chiappini, Stefania; Mattioli, Francesca; Martelli, Antonietta; Schifano, Fabrizio|
|組織名||Department of Internal Medicine, Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology Unit,;University of Genoa, Viale Benedetto XV 2, I-16132, Genoa, Italy.;Psychopharmacology; Drug Misuse; and Novel Psychoactive Substances Research Unit,;School of Life and Medical Sciences, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield,;Herts, UK.;Casa di Cura Villa Rosa, Via F. Baracca, 21, 01100, Viterbo, VT.|