Pragmatic pharmacoeconomic analyses by using post-market adverse drug reaction reports: an illustration using infliximab, adalimumab, and the Canada vigilance adverse reaction database.
BACKGROUND: The prediction of the real-world cost of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) has historically relied on the data from randomized controlled trials (RCT). However, trial conditions do not always reflect the real-world applications of pharmaceutical products; hence, they may not accurately portray the actual risks of ADRs associated with them.
The objective of this study is two-fold: (a) demonstrate whether and how post-market and RCT ADR data could lead to different conclusions for a set of drugs of interest, and (b) evaluate the potential economic impact of the post-market ADRs associated with those drugs.
METHODS: We selected two TNF-alpha inhibitor biologics, infliximab and adalimumab, and used the Canada Vigilance Adverse Reaction (CVAR) online database as a source of post-market ADR data. Adverse reaction data from RCTs were obtained from ClinicalTrials.gov . Direct healthcare costs associated with adverse reactions were obtained from Canadian Institute for Health Information (CIHI) or Interactive Health Data Application, Alberta. We calculated post-market ADR rates and compared them with those found in the randomized controlled trials of these two drugs.
Using the post-market data, we estimated the costs associated with serious ADRs from three perspectives: patient, health system, and societal.
RESULTS: For both drugs, the post-market and RCT data exhibited significantly different adverse reaction rates for several different clinical outcomes. As a general trend, more serious adverse reactions, such as death, appeared to have a higher rate in post-market applications compared to the clinical trials. The estimated average annual economic burden of the severe adverse reaction outcomes ranged from $10 million to $20 million for infliximab and $6 million to $19 million for adalimumab.
CONCLUSIONS: The frequency and severity of post-market adverse reactions associated with pharmaceutical products may significantly differ from those detected in the clinical trials. Despite possible methodological differences, this is due to the fact that post-market data reflect the externalities of the real-world that are absent in RCTs. The economic burden of adverse reactions can be substantial, and the cost calculated using post-market data is better reflective of the cost of ADRs in the real-world.
|投稿者||Maity, Tuhin; Longo, Christopher|
|ジャーナル名||BMC health services research|
|組織名||Health Policy and Management, DeGroote School of Business, McMaster University,;1280 Main Street West, Ontario, Hamilton, L8S 4M4, Canada. firstname.lastname@example.org.;1280 Main Street West, Ontario, Hamilton, L8S 4M4, Canada.|