Exposure to immediate-release tramadol in children 6 years and under – a nationwide French poison control center study.
INTRODUCTION: Data regarding immediate-release (IR)-tramadol exposures in children remain sparse. We aimed to investigate the incidence of IR-tramadol exposures in </=6-year-old children, to describe the characteristics and resulting outcome of ingestions involving IR-tramadol alone, and to estimate a clinically relevant toxic dose in this population.
METHODS: Retrospective analysis of IR-tramadol exposures in </=6-year-old children, collected by the French Poison Control Centers (PCCs) in 2003-2019. The incidence was estimated using IR-tramadol prescription data from the Health Improvement Network database (the French version of THIN). The Poison severity score (PSS) was used to grade severity.
RESULTS: We found 1260 IR-tramadol exposures in </=6-year-old children. The number of cases per 100,000 IR-tramadol-treated patients increased over time (p < .0001). One hundred forty-five cases involving IR-tramadol alone were analyzed. The median age was 3.0 years (IQR: 1.9, 4.0), the M/F ratio was 1.5 and the median dose was 5.0 mg/kg (IQR 3.3-11.1). Half of the children (49.7%) remained asymptomatic (PSS0) while 29.6% and 14.5% developed minor (PSS1) or moderate-to-severe (PSS2-PSS3) neurological symptoms, respectively. Twelve children developed respiratory depression. No seizures and no fatality were reported. All symptomatic children recovered within 24 h. The ingested IR-tramadol dose was positively correlated with the PSS (p < .0001). Using a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve approach (area under the curve, 0.92; p < .001), ingestion of >/=7.4 mg/kg IR-tramadol was appropriate to recommend hospital referral (sensitivity, 100% [95% confidence interval (CI), 85-100]; specificity, 73% [95% CI, 64-80]; predictive positive value, 39% [95% CI, 35-57]; negative predictive value, 100% [95% CI, 96-100]). Children who ingested <7.4 mg/kg IR-tramadol developed no (n = 68) or minor (n = 22) neurological symptoms.
CONCLUSIONS: Despite increasing tramadol prescriptions in adults during the study period in France, oral exposure to IR-tramadol in </=6-year-old children was rare but possibly responsible for severe toxicity. Children with no underlying disease and concomitant medication ingesting <7.4 mg/kg IR-tramadol alone could be observed at home. However, given the observed variability in the onset of seizures after tramadol ingestion, which can occur at ingested tramadol doses below 7.4 mg and even at therapeutic doses, parents or guardians should be specifically warned about the risk of seizures.
|ジャーナル名||Clinical toxicology (Philadelphia, Pa.)|
|投稿者||Care, Weniko; Tangre, Alexane; Dufayet, Laurene; Lekens, Beranger; Laborde-Casterot, Herve; Langrand, Jerome; Megarbane, Bruno; Vodovar, Dominique|
|組織名||Centre antipoison de Paris, Assistance Publique - Hopitaux de Paris, Hopital;Fernand Widal, Paris, France.;INSERM UMR-S 1144, Universite de Paris, Paris, France.;Service de medecine interne, Hopital d'instruction des armees Begin, Saint-Mande,;France.;UFR de medecine, Universite de Paris, Paris, France.;Unite medico-judiciaire, Assistance Publique - Hopitaux de Paris, Paris, France.;GERSDATA, Gers SAS (Groupe Cegedim), Boulogne-Billancourt, France.;Reanimation Medicale et Toxicologique, Hopital Lariboisiere, Assistance Publique;- Hopitaux de Paris, Paris, France.|